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Illuminating Perspectives: A Philosophical Discourse by Hilal Ahmad Khan on Descartes and Light.

Hilal Ahmad Khan

Hilal Ahmad Khan's writings on René Descartes and light reflect an engaging journey through knowledge and cognition. He seamlessly transitions from the Middle Ages to the Modern Era, skillfully blending philosophy and science. Khan beautifully portrays Descartes' rationality while emphasizing the importance of the senses in learning. The discussion of technology's dual nature alludes to René Descartes' investigations. Khan's inventive manipulation of René Descartes' mechanical principle of light, used as a prism for philosophy, science, and the arts, elevates his narrative to a highly scholastic stage. His writing is essentially a philosophical investigation that prompts readers to ponder the intricacies of light and the evolving narratives of human perception.

As in defining the term scientifically and philosophically, light carries all the visibilitiesthrough our spam of life passes. To pair in the two products of the existence as a human and hissurroundings and conceptual construction or idea of supreme. All the creations of these supremehuman beings are considered as the most important as intelligible and problematic. In the human body we distingue different qualities to understand or behave. To critique the great philosopherof the seventeenth century which implies not carrying the term but to the convection of philosophical and scientific understandings. Living in the current era, the twenty-first centurywhere so much implementation of philosophies, experiments, theories, technologies, andreflecting of old concepts, ideologies, etc., and also included certain names like Eurocentric,American-centric, Colonialist western-centric and mostly during the birth of new period namelyrenaissance and which haulage the philosophies of central Asia and east Asia, which was knownas the golden period of middle ages, but still we include the writings of the philosophers to makedebate to clarify the discussion into the present era of highly polluted, suffocated from differentvicinities and too much fake and too much real.Light makes things visible in our daily regime mainly through the heavenly bodystructure and Sun and to understand the object in different chaos is our light and vision. ReneDescartes knew the rationalism establishment and the connection and interconnection of body,mind, and soul and most importantly the senses as an acquisition part to attain knowledge.Sciences open new ways, questions, and solutions to lead us in these extra-modern civilizationsmostly preferred weapons. Rene Descartes added this “opened the way for us to attainknowledge of nature much greater and more perfect than they possessed . . . But inventions ofany complexity do not reach their highest degree of perfection right away, and this one is stillsufficiently problematical to give me cause to write about it”. Perfection is the right way thatmay need light, light to see things in their useful ways but this is all experimental, and as muchthe technology is beneficial is also harmful and deconstructive in many aspects. Many now seeDescartes as having posed the skeptical challenge that still confronts philosophers, with the
 
hypothesis of the evil genius taking the skeptical challenge as far, or as deep, as it can go. ForDescartes, however, it was more like the deep night through which the soul must pass on its wayto light, the light of reason, and to God as the reason for all things and the source of that light,and then, through God, to the scientific study of the world. Few have been able to follow him: heis not convinced. For most, the radical skepticism created by Descartes’ method of doubt and thedemon hypothesis is a sham: Descartes creates the problem for himself when he suggests that theworld can be distinguished ontologically into the world of ordinary experience and a world ofessences or forms that lies beyond this ordinary world but which constitutes the reasons for its being. If the reasons for our ordinary world being as it is are not to be found in that world, thenthey are not to be found at all, and the radical skepticism is a consequence of a search after whatcannot be found: the skepticism is not there to be conquered, as Descartes thought, but to bedismissed as an unreasonable longing for a world of certainty that is not there.Here main understanding is that Rene Descartes wants to add that the definition of light isthe interconnection with the objects it depends not only on vision or seeing but on the feelingsand conception as the blind is perceiving while using his stick. The action of the object comesfrom the object as well, sight can be perceived not only using the action in them which isdirected towards our eyes but also by the action in our eyes which is directed towards them.There are many allusions in the discourse on the body, soul, and sensory awareness. First, thequestion is whether their soul is set into two, as referred to, Friedrich Nietzsche contradicts theconcept of two “body is soul and soul is body how we are measuring it into two.” ReneDescartes also includes that the body is a machine and the machine functions in it on themetabolism of living and dealing with conceptual things with the sensory consideration. For acontemporary understanding of the soul/mind and the problem concerning its connection to the brain/body, consider the rejection of Descartes’s mind-body dualism by Gilbert Ryle’s ghost-in-the-machine argument, the tenuous unassailability of Richard Swinburne’s argument for thesoul, and the advances that have been made in neuroscience that are steadily undermining thevalidity of the concept of an independent soul/mind. The philosophies of mind and personalidentity also contribute to a contemporary understanding of the mind. The contemporaryapproach does not so much attack the existence of an independent soul as renders the conceptless relevant.
Descartes is not the first to use the mechanical analogies but because he asserts that lightis only a mechanical property of the luminous body and the transmitting medium; Descartes’theory of light is regarded as the start of modern physical optics. To contradict the idea of ReneDescartes’s inclusion of light and the function of the eye and the senses it also changed in theinventions of the sciences mostly like the camera. Which total transforms the meaning of therepresentation first through the senses and then on the surface? Lastly, we can conclude addingthe most important thing is lightly used by visionary and blind to interconnection understandingof mind, brain, and soul, but in the spam of time as till the present, the sciences have changed theconcepts of living and the meaning of soul and body, which Rene Descartes was parsing bothsciences and senses. No single answer to the question “What is light?” satisfies the many contexts in whichlight is experienced, explored, and exploited. The physicist is interested in the physical propertiesof light, and the artist in an aesthetic appreciation of the visual world. Through the sense of sight,light is a primary tool for perceiving the world and communicating within it. Light from the Sunwarms the Earth, drives global weather patterns, and initiates the life-sustaining process of photosynthesis. On the grandest scale, light’s interactions with matter have helped shape thestructure of the universe. Indeed, light provides a window into the universe, from cosmologicalto atomic scales. Almost all of the information about the rest of the Cosmos reaches the Earth inthe form of electromagnetic radiation. By interpreting that radiation, astronomers can glimpse theearliest epochs of the universe, measure the general expansion of the universe, and determine thechemical composition of stars and the interstellar medium.
Khan underlines the transformative impact of Descartes' theory of light on modern physical optics, particularly in the context of technological inventions like the camera. The discourse leaves readers pondering the evolving concepts of living, the soul, and the body, as shaped by both sciences and senses.

Final Thoughts: As we contemplate the question "What is light?" through Khan's lens, we recognize light not merely as a physical phenomenon but as a multifaceted tool for perceiving and interpreting the world. From cosmic scales to the intricacies of human perception, light, as interpreted by Khan, offers a profound window into the universe.

Hilal Ahmad Khan's discourse is a philosophical investigation that beckons readers to explore the profound complexities of light, challenging us to reconsider the narratives that shape our understanding of the world.

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